5 Things Dog Owners Should Know About Giving Benadryl To Dogs
by Karen Tietjen iheartdogs.com

Giving Benadryl to Dogs: Caring dog owners are always super cautious about what they let their dogs ingest, from the food they eat to the medicines they take. While you should never give your pup medication without advice from your vet, there are a few over-the-counter drugs for humans your canine may benefit from in certain instances. If you are looking for the correct dosage of Benadryl to give your dog, we found a great infographic from Dog Health Coach.

You may have heard of pooch parents giving their dogs Benadryl for seasonal allergies, or even to make them drowsy and stave off nausea on the occasional car ride. The most common question we get is  “is it safe, and how will it affect my dog when I give them Benadryl?”.

Nine things you didn't know about dogs, according to science
BC Science Focus Magazine https://www.sciencefocus.com  By Sara Rigby   15th July, 2020 ABRIDGED

Dogs are our best friends, so you'd be forgiven for thinking you know all there is to know about your pup. You'd be wrong, though: science has a lot to say about our furry friends, from whether they understand you to how they can help your health. Oh, and don't forget: they really do love you.

1.Your pup may be much older than you think. The idea that dogs age seven years for every human year is a myth, scientists have claimed. University of California researchers said they have also found puppies are middle-aged by the time they are two, although dogs tend to age more slowly than humans in later life. By the time they get to three – and are possibly still getting away with things due to being considered young – dogs are closer in age to a 50-year-old human, according to the university's research.

2. But they still went through a stroppy teenage phase.  Humans are not alone in going through the emotional rollercoaster of puberty. UK scientists have found dogs endure a similar phase during adolescence at around eight months of age. They warn that puberty can be a vulnerable time for dogs, especially if they are rehomed at this age. The experts also found female dogs were more likely to reach puberty early if they had insecure attachments, characterized by higher levels of attention seeking and separation anxiety, to their owners. Study leader Dr Lucy Asher said: “It's very important that owners don't punish their dogs for disobedience or start to pull away from them emotionally at this time. This would be likely to make any problem behavior worse, as it does in human teens.”

3. They really do understand what you say to them. Who's a clever boy? Many dog owners who talk to their pooches are convinced that their words are being understood. It turns out they may be right.
A study at Emory University has found that dogs have a basic understanding of words, are able to distinguish words they have heard before from those they haven't, and are eager to try to understand what is being said to them. They found that there was more activation in the auditory regions of the dogs' brains when they reacted to the novel words, suggesting that they sensed that their owners wanted them to understand what they were saying, and were trying to do so.

Alternatives to the Dreaded Cone
DOGWatch, Cornell University of Veterinary Medicine, June 2020 
Some dogs handle cones with aplomb, others…
A study at the Sydney School of Veterinary Science looked at alternatives to the use of the classic cone or Elizabethan collar. The collar is used to prevent pets from biting, licking,  or chewing at incisions, lesions, or sore spots.
Read more HERE
COVID-19 Canine Scent Detection Study
May 12, 2020 University of Pennsylvania ABRIDGED
A pilot training program using scent detection dogs to discriminate between samples from COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative patients is the focus of a new research initiative at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet).With up to 300 million smell receptors—compared to six million in humans—dogs are uniquely positioned to aid in disease detection. 
Read more HERE
Managing your “fur-workers”: Supporting your pets while working from home
Story by Chad Campbell  March 31, 2020 Purdue University College of Agriculture. ABRIDGED

"A downside of working from home is that many of my important work conversations are interrupted by what I have begun to refer to as my fur-workers,” said Candace Croney fondly describing her cat, Bernie, and Havanese mix Desi. “They like to help me out by announcing the end of the world is coming because a delivery arrived or walk across my keyboard to end a web conference without my consent.” 

Croney, professor of animal behavior and well-being and director of Purdue's Center for Animal Welfare Science, is used to sharing her workspace with companion animals. The same cannot be said of millions of Americans now working from home due to the outbreak of COVID-19. Croney offers some thoughts about benefitting from and adjusting to new “fur workers.”

Read the full article HERE
COVID-19 How to protect your pets

First, the good news: Both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as well as the World Organisation for Animal Health have issued advisories saying there is no evidence that companion animals can spread the virus. “Therefore, there is no justification in taking measures against companion animals which may compromise their welfare,” the animal health organization said.

Nonetheless, Edward Dubovi, a professor at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine said, "stopping transmission to animals of any virus is always wise, so anyone who has the virus should treat their pets as they would family members, to try to prevent transmission, limiting contact, wearing a mask, washing hands often."

It is important to include pets in your family's planning.

  • If you get sick and are quarantined, you should make sure you have extra pet food on hand
  • Make your neighbors, friends, and family aware of any feeding, walking or medications that your pets need in case you can't make it back home
  • Get prepared now.
Read more HERE
Facial recognition: The Next Step in Fight Against Rabies
February 10, 2020 https://scienceblog.com Laura Lockard, WSU College of Veterinary Medicine
Researchers in Tanzania can now determine if a dog was vaccinated for the rabies virus with a cellphone camera image. The research team, based out of Washington State University's Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health, is working with PiP My Pet, a company that developed a mobile application that uses facial recognition to reunite lost pets with their owners.

The only twist; rather than locate the lost, the company designed a new app to track which dogs were vaccinated for the rabies virus, and more importantly, which dogs still require the vaccine.

The app is currently being rolled out in a series of field trials as part of the National Institute of Health's vaccination trial in the Mara region of Tanzania.  The trial, which will provide the first mass dog vaccination against rabies in the region, began this year and is aiming to test the efficacy of two delivery strategies: the first uses teams of vaccinators in vehicles to visit each village in turn, while the second uses village-based vaccinators to deliver mass vaccination of dogs.

Read the full article HERE
Experts Come Together to Save 3-year-old Gorilla's Eyesight 
at San Diego Zoo Safari Park
 January 10, 2020   https://scienceblog.com

Animal care specialists at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park were concerned when they noticed cloudiness in the left eye of Leslie, a 3-year-old female western lowland gorilla. Closer inspection confirmed the lens had changed and the left eye was shifting haphazardly, prompting Leslie to favor use of her right eye.

Given Leslie's young age and developmental stage, Safari Park veterinarians organized a team of internal and external experts, including ophthalmologists and anesthesiologists at UC San Diego Health, to perform the Park's first-ever cataract surgery on a gorilla.

Read more HERE
How Humans have shaped dogs’ brains
Society for Neuroscience, Journal of Neorosci, September 2, 2019

Findings suggest that selective breeding has altered brain anatomy in dogs

Dog brain structure varies across breeds and is correlated with specific behaviors, according to new research published. These findings show how, by selectively breeding for certain behaviors, humans have shaped the brains of their best friends.

To read more, Click HERE
Cats bond with caregivers just as much as babies and dogs
Medical News Today newsletter Written by Robby Berman on September 29, 2019

The first empirical study on the connection between cats and their caregivers refutes felines' chilly image. While the attachment that dogs form to their owners is obvious, the same is not always true of cats. Indeed, cats have a reputation for being independent, even indifferent, and people have long debated the extent to which they ever truly bond with their caregivers.
Read the full article HERE
Dog ownership associated with longer life, 
especially among heart attack and stroke survivors
American Heart Association (AHA) Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes journal report October 8, 2019. Abridged

Dog ownership may be associated with longer life and better cardiovascular outcomes, especially for heart attack and stroke survivors who live alone, according to a new study and a separate meta-analysis published in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, a journal of the American Heart Association.

Classroom Pets Have Positive Impact on Kids
PET PRODUCT NEWS STAFF Published: 2019.09.02 08:30 AM

Classroom pets may help improve academic performance and social skills in children, according to a study put out by the Human Animal Bond Research Institute. the study, recently published online, is the largest of its kind, according to the authors. 

Measuring the Social, Behavioral, and Academic Effects of Classroom Pets on Third and Fourth-Grade Students assessed the social, behavioral and academic effects of the presence of small, resident classroom animals for 591 third and fourth-grade students across the United States over the 2016-2017 school year.

Read more HERE
Are Dogs who live with smokers more likely to get cancer?
A recent study published in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research*** demonstrates how secondhand and thirdhand smoke is basically turning our dogs into "passive smokers". Marcello Roza and Carlos Vegas of the Department of Pneumology at the University of Brasilia in Brazil tested 30 Yorkshire Terriers, half of whom lived in a home containing cigarette smokers. One of the ways in which you can determine whether an individual is a smoker or has been exposed to significant environmental amounts of tobacco smoke over a long period of time is to use what researchers call "biomarkers". One of these is cotinine which is an alkaloid found in tobacco and also appears when we metabolize nicotine. The level of cotinine in the urine of dogs was significantly higher in those animals who lived with smokers. Furthermore the dogs in smoking homes had increased levels of macrophages and lymphocytes which seems to be evidence of prolonged inflammation of the airway of these dogs, and might well be interpreted as precursors for nasal, throat, and lung cancer. In effect these dogs are already showing some of the negative effects associated with tobacco smoke that they might have developed if these themselves were the active smokers.

For more information, click HERE

Grow New Mexico Philanthropy Summit

From Albuquerque Business First, February 7, 2019. (Abridged)

Business and nonprofit leaders from around New Mexico gathered to participate in a panel discussion about challenges faced by nonprofits in New Mexico, followed by a live grant-making session that saw $1,000 awarded by Western Sky Community care and Meow Wolf to each of three New Mexico nonprofits.

 The grant winners were Paws To People; Prosperity Works (focused on addressing systemic poverty); and Adelente Development Center which supports people with disabilities.

 The decision making group provided input to the audience about what attracted them to each application. They were immediately impressed with the Paws To People Mission of funding research to benefit better health and longer lives in both people and pets. The grantors commented positively that the Paws To People Study made a local impact on environmental concerns in Albuquerque. Specifically, they valued the Study for considering a possible connection between local water quality and the instances of auto immune disease. 

The Paws to People Board of Directors unanimously voted to fund its THIRD research project!

 The environment plays a major role in the development of many diseases for both pets and people. Water is a link shared by all on the planet but we are just beginning to scientifically explore the connections between pollution and illness. This study will create a database to extend the body of knowledge about water contaminants and pollutants and their effects on specific autoimmune diseases in pets on a zip code based level.

 Imagine the impact on research and community action of building this expandable database that models water quality district by district recording levels of specific water impurities overlaid with the pet incidences of certain diseases (specifically the auto immune illnesses, thyroidism and IMHA) which might be influenced by these pollutants. Then, additional data can be overlaid with the incidence of the same diseases in humans living in those same areas to see if there is potentially a similar correlation or pattern in people (a potential Phase II of the study).

 The value as science and medicine searches for commonalities, patterns and potential causality…the heart of the translational medicine…will be tremendous. This water testing and data collection combines the skills of environmental engineers, veterinarians, and human medical practitioners to put together a resource for those doing specific research in both veterinary and human health into those diseases, and for communities assessing water safety.

 The project will initially focus on Albuquerque, NM, establishing a template that could be repeated and used across the country as science investigates the connections between the environment and the development of disease.

 Paws To People is at the front line to help define a new approach to medicine and to rediscover our connectedness to the rest of our planet. By building bridges we will find innovative solutions to how we detect, prevent and cure diseases that take too many too soon. For more information, visit the organization’s website: www.BridgesToCures.org or email them at info@BridgesToCures.org.

 Since its founding four years ago, Paws To People has funded a study to improve testing for Lyme Disease (Dr. Jenna Mendell, Bridgewater State University) and a project exploring End of Life Decision Making Processes in Humans and Pets (Dr. Rochelle Heuberger, Central Michigan University). The organization is active in raising community awareness of translational medicine and the nearly 400 diseases that affect both people and pets, which makes us ideal partners in modeling and fighting these diseases. The group is based on grassroots and environment-based fundraising to accomplish its mission.

 Paws To People is a recognized 501(c) (3) non-profit, founded and based in Albuquerque; it is an all-volunteer group of people filled with hope of the potential of translational studies research. They are determined that their work remains focused on funding this important research, and they keep operating costs minimal.

April 2018 e-Waste Update
The final weight for the e-Waste Collection was 1,667 pounds! Over half a ton of "stuff" saved from the landfill! Nearly 10,800 since we began this environment-based fundraising project with our amazing sponsors, Boofy's Best for Pets and New Mexico Computer Recycling! And it will continue in late August with another e-Waste event, so start gathering your e-Waste now.
Your Dog’s Nose Helps Them Tell Time

It’s no secret that dogs have an incredible sense of smell. We’ve been able to train them to do some really amazing things with their noses, but we still might not be able to fully grasp the complexity of the canine olfactory system. Just when we thought detecting drugs, weapons, cancers and other substances were awesome enough, we’ve learned that dogs can actually tell time with their noses. Yep, you read that right. Your pup can tell what time it is by their sense of smell.

Read more in the April, 2018 issue of Pulse, the Paws To People Newsletter

Omega-3 and Krill Oil Can Help Your Pup Fight Off Ear Infections
by Karen Tietjenon February 6, 2018 https://iheartdogs.com/how-omega-3-and-krill-oil-can-help-your-pup-fight-off-ear-infections

In order to prevent ear infections, it’s helpful to know what causes them. Water can get trapped inside floppy ears, enabling bacteria or yeast to flourish. Ear mites can also lead to this itchy, painful condition, and food or environmental allergies can cause inflammation that results in the growth of these organisms. (If your dog gets chronic ear infections, consult with your vet and ask whether a dietary change may be necessary.)

With so many breeds and mixes being prone to ear infections, it’s an issue that pooch parents should know about. The good news is, it’s mostly preventable with a little awareness and a few tools.

First off, always clean your pup’s ears regularly with a liquid solution or handy cleansing wipes. Make sure you dry them thoroughly, especially after bathing, swimming, or coming inside from the rain. But perhaps the easiest think you can do is add a supplement to your dog’s diet that helps combat infections from the inside out!

Omega-3 and krill oil can help prevent unnecessary pain and itching for your pup. These fish-derived nutrients can significantly decrease the inflammation that’s often associated with infections. They also help support skin, coat, and immune system health, keeping your pup’s ears healthy and resilient in multiple ways.

Statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This article is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. The information is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified healthcare professional.
Reverse Sneezing

DogWatch. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. Vol.21, No.12, December, 2017

Your dog is walking along and suddenly pauses. He inhales multiple times, making a snorting or gagging sort of noise. You panic thinking he is choking or has inhaled something. Most likely your dog is having a bout of reverse sneezing.

This action is called “reverse” sneezing because it is air going in, not out, as in a typical sneeze. It is generally caused by a spasm of the soft palate on the roof of your dog’s mouth. The spasm makes it temporarily difficult for your dog to bring as much air as normal into his lungs.

What stimulates a reverse sneeze? Lots of things--dust, excitement, or pulling hard on a leash. Actual irritation, such as harsh chemicals, can do this, too, as well as infectious agents like respiratory mites. It is felt that brachycephalic dogs (with short muzzles) like Boxers may be prone to this, but even dogs with longer muzzles may have bouts of reverse sneezing. For example, Corgis are prone to this, too.

Luckily, despite the disconcerting sounds, reverse sneezing is not serious. Most dogs can be stopped by either gently putting your hand over their nose and muzzle or blowing into their nose. Massaging the throat and getting your dog to swallow can also break the sneeze cycle. Most bouts of reverse sneezing last for a few seconds or to a minute.

A reverse sneeze can be differentiated from tracheal collapse by the noise. With tracheal collapse, there tends to be a “honking” noise, not a snorting sound. If your dog makes this noise or has frequent bouts of reverse sneezing with no obvious cause, visit your vet to rule out tracheal issues, soft palate inflammation or an abnormally long soft palate
Drug-Resistant Heartworm

Station WGNO from Metairie, LA, reports that a yellow Labrador retriever is the first US pet infected by a new drug-resistant strain of heartworms. The dog was on monthly heartworm prevention and contracted the heartworms in 2014. The story was just published in Parasites and Vectors.

The Department of Infectious Diseases at University of Georgia’s College of Veterinary Medicine confirmed that the heartworms were drug-resistant and named the strain “Metairie-2014.”

The new strain is helping researchers at UGA better understand and help solve the problem of drug-resistance in heartworms.
Your Donation Funds New Research
This coming year we hope to fund a new project that looks at water contamination and auto immune diseases (thyroidism, diabetes, and IMHA) in humans and pets. The concept is on the cutting edge of growing suspicions that these illnesses are influenced by the environment and the impurities that are part of our water/food supply.
Your donation, whatever you can afford, will go directly to funding new research that will look at connections that could unlock secrets that will help defeat auto immune diseases that leave both people and pets suffering and condemn them to lifelong complications and early death. 

Your donation will make a difference and help us understand the connections that will lead to lives saved. We CAN build bridges to cures...together!
  1. Donations can be made through the Web Site HERE or on our FACEBOOK PAGE
Safe Travel with Your Pet…Don’t Leave Home Without it
  • A spare leash
  • Collar with your phone number
  • A current photo and full written description of your pet showing his full body and face
  • First Aid kit with gauze, bandage wraps, artificial tears, and triple antibiotic ointment
  • Food and water bowls
  • Medications
  • Car sickness over-the-counter pills as recommended by your vet
  • Vet info
  • Poop bags
  • Proof of rabies vaccination
  • Water from home
  • Your dog’s normal food
  • Favorite comfort toy or cuddle
Vegetables for Your Dogs or Cats? Absolutely!

17 May, 2017 Abridged   http://petpav.com/vegetables-dogs-cats-absolutely/

 Adding vegetables to your dog or cat’s daily diet (if they allow it) is healthy and offers variety, minerals and fibers. How many vegetables should you give your dog or cat? Where dogs can eat around 30% of plant foods in their daily diet, cats only require around 5-10%.

Dark green vegetables have chlorophyll which is great for cleansing. Green vegetables contain chlorophyll which is cleansing and detoxifying. Chlorophyll is a great liver ally, assisting in the removal of toxins and heavy metals from the body and also shows anti-carcinogenic potential. 

Vegetable Choices that are safe and encouraged: You can experiment with most vegetables. Try any of the following: carrots, celery, chard, spinach, avocados, kale, squash, watercress, cabbage, turnips, broccoli, peas, green beans, cauliflower and asparagus. And yes, brussel sprouts!

Sweet potatoes are higher in sugar content and should be used in smaller proportion to any above-ground vegetable choices.  Carrots are great for our pets teeth.  And celery is high in fiber, water and low calorie!  Consider steaming or boiling veggies such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, as they are much easier to digest when cooked.

Vegetables that are unsafe your pets: Never feed your pet onions or garlic as they are toxic in all forms. These cause damage to the red blood cells, ultimately causing them to burst. Rhubarb and wild mushrooms also contain toxins.

If you want to change your pet’s diet to a healthy, holistic, species-appropriate diet or are embarking on a natural homemade or raw food diet, consult your veterinarian.
Doggy Scope, Anyone?

DOGWatch, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, January, 2018, Vol. 22, No. 1

You finish a rousing game of fetch and bend down to pet your dog. Phew! A blast of foul air greets you!

Bad breath is not just a socially unpleasant trait in dogscan indicate a health problem. Any abnormal odor is reason to examine the dog’s mouth and/or schedule a veterinary visit. Treatment of the underlying condition will result in better breath and, most important, better health.

Causes for Bad Breath

Conformation: The way your dog is built may be behind the bad breath. Brachycephalic dogswith shortened muzzles and faces like Boxers and Pugsto sleep with their mouths open a bit. As the mouth dries out, the breath becomes less pleasant. Encouraging your dog to sleep with his head on pillows may help. Doggie breath mints only provide temporary relief.

Unsupervised Snacking: Dogs are attracted to goose poop, sheep and deer droppings, and other foul things. Some dogs roll in these “delights” while others eagerly snack on them. These treats can cause bad breath, but it is temporary and usually goes away after a drink or a little time.

Trapped Debris: Foreign bodies, like a piece of wood stuck across the roof of the mouth on the hard palate or a string wrapped around a tooth, can also contribute to poor breath. Your first hint of a problem is often pawing at the mouth, even before bad breath develops. Removing these items may require veterinary assistance.

Cancer: Cancers of the mouth often cause bad breath due to the diseased tissues. You will likely notice other signs firstat the mouth, drool with some blood, and poor appetite. You can look carefully if your dog is tolerant, but sedation may be required for a thorough exam of the mouth.

Disease: Chronic health conditions such as diabetes and kidney failure, can also cause poor breath quality. Diabetic dogs who are poorly regulated will build up substances called ketones. These can cause a “sickly sweet” odor to the breath. Dogs with severe kidney disease may build up toxins that lead to an ammonia-like odor to the breath.

Bad Teeth: By far the most common cause for bad breath in dogs is a dental problem. Puppies who are going through teething may have bouts of mild bad breath but that passes as the adult teeth come in.

Check His Mouth

Most dental problems are more involved than switching over to adult teeth. You should look carfully at your dog’s mouth.

Are gums red and somewhat inflamed? This would mean gingivitis.

Is there a buildup of plaque or tartar on the teeth? The incisors and canine teeth in front may look fine, but the premolars and molars toward the back of the muzzle may have a heavy buildup of plaque.

Plaque provides a medium for bacterial growth. This leads to inflammation and possibly even an abscess along with damage the tooth roots as bacteria invade the gum line. 

The same sequence can occur with broken or cracked teeth as there is  an opening for bacterial growth. As well as bad breath you may notice a swelling by your dog’s eye from an abscessed tooth.

Along with bad breath, most dogs with dental problems will show additional signs. Your dog may paw at his mouth, drool more than usual, and may have some blood in the drool, hesitate to drink, especially if the water is cool, and may avoid eating or just eat soft foods and treats.

Luckily, dental problems leading to bad breath are both treatable and preventable. The first step is a thorough dental examination by your vet. This may include taking some X-rays to look for root problems and abscesses. A dental cleaning and polishing along with removal of any cracked or broken teeth, plus treatment of any abscesses will start your dog off with a clean mouth and relatively fresh breath.

It is then up to you to follow up with preventative care at home. Ideally, that means daily tooth brushing or use of a gauze and gel to clean teeth daily. There are additives you can put in your dog’s water and even dental hygiene oriented diets. You can experiment and find which solution works best for you and your dog. Bad breath can be handled!
Dog Communication

Of the five senses, smell is a dog’s predominant sense. While the human nose is equipped with roughly 5 million olfactory receptors, dogs have many millions morehave roughly 125 million olfactory receptors, beagles have 225 million, and bloodhounds have up to 300 million. Smell is how dogs define their environment.

When another dog comes along and smells feces or sniffs another dog’s rear, the sniffing dog can tell:

  1. If the dog is male or female;
  2. Approximately how old the dog is;
  3. Whether the dog is in good health;
  4. The mood or temperament of the dog;
  5. Diet
  6. Sexual status.

Why Do Cats Leave Their Mouths Open After Smelling?

Cats are interesting pets and do many things that entertain us.  What’s better than seeing your cat jump like an acrobat, roll on her back with her arms up or just give you that meaningful stare?  One of the most adorable expressions is when your cat leaves her mouth open after smelling something.

The actual act is called the “flehmen recation” and occurs when your cat’s mouth opens to draw air to the Jacobson’s organ.

Cats often keep their mouths hanging open to help them check out their surroundings. When cats discover an interesting scent, they open their mouths to try to identify the aroma. The cat wrinkles her nose and her upper lip pulls back, creating a funny face. As your cat considers the scent, she sucks in air and transfers it to a Jacobson’s organ, also known as the vomeronasal sac, which is behind the teeth in the roof of a cat’s mouth. This organ processes the scents and sends signals to the brain.

The intriguing smells are usually related to territoriality issues such as cats smelling urine marks left by other cats. They also kick into gear when a female cat in heat leaves scents in an area. Male cats are more likely to display flehmen, but mother cats depend on it to keep track of their kittens. The behavior may also be used to distinguish certain food they love or even catnip!

The reason cats look dazed for a second or two, after taking in the smell, is because they can learn a lot of information about their surroundings. They mark territory using the scent glands on their cheeks and paws. The glands secrete pheromones, which are chemical substances that stimulate a behavioral response, such as an avoidance or even an aggressive reaction. When cats “spray” it’s another way they are marking their territory.

Cats aren’t alone in investigating with their mouths.Other species perform similar acts to the flehmen, including snakes that stick their tongues out to explore their environment and elephants that reach out with their trunks.